The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO,/ ˈneɪtoʊ/; French Organisation du traité del’Atlantique nord, OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance among 28 European countries and 2 North American countries. Established in the fate of World War II, the association implements the North Atlantic Treaty, inked 4 April 1949
NATO constitutes a system of collaborative security, whereby its independent member countries agree to collective defense in response to an attack by any external party. The NATO headquarters is located in Brussels, Belgium, while the headquarters of Allied Command Operations is near Mons, Belgium.
Since its founding, the admission of new member countries has increased the alliance from the original
12 countries to 30. The most recent member state to be added to NATO was North Macedonia on 27 March 2020. NATO presently recognizes Bosnia and Herzegovina, Georgia, and Ukraine as aspiringmembers.Enlargement has led to pressures withnon-member Russia, with Russian President Vladimir Putin demanding that NATO give legal guarantees that it would stop expanding east (to countries similar as Ukraine, Georgia or Moldova). After NATO rejected this condition, Russia raided Ukraine in February 2022 in an attempt to help it from aligning with NATO.
An fresh 20 countries share in NATO’s Partnership for Peace programme, with 15 other countries involved in institutionalized dialogue programmes. The combined military spending of all NATO members in 2020 constituted over 57 per cent of the global nominal aggregate. (7) Members agreed that their end is to reach or maintain the target defence spending of at least 2 per cent of their GDP by 2024.
NATO was the first reconciliation military alliance the United States entered into outside of the Western Semicircle. After the destruction of the Second World War, the nations of Europe plodded to rebuild their husbandry and insure their security. The former needed a massive affluence of aid to help the war- torn geographiesre-establish diligence and produce food, and the ultimate needed assurances against a resurgent Germany or irruptions from the Soviet Union. The United States viewed an economically strong, rearmed, and integrated Europe as vital to the forestallment of communist expansion across the mainland. As a result, Secretary of State George Marshall proposed a program of large-scale profitable aid to Europe. The performing European Recovery Program, or Marshall Plan, not only eased European profitable integration but promoted the idea of participated interests and cooperation between the United States and Europe. Soviet turndown either to share in the Marshall Plan or to allow its satellite countries in Eastern Europe to accept the profitable backing helped to support the growing division between east and west in Europe.
In 1947 – 1948, a series of events caused the nations of Western Europe to come concerned about their physical and political security and the United States to come more nearly involved with European affairs. The ongoing civil war in Greece, along with pressures in Turkey, led President HarryS. Truman to assert that the United States would give profitable and military aid to both countries, as well as to any other nation floundering against an attempt at subjection. A Soviet- patronized achievement in Czechoslovakia redounded in a communist government coming to power on the borders of Germany.
Attention also concentrated on choices in Italy as the communist party had made significant earnings among Italian choosers. Likewise, events in Germany also caused concern.
The occupation and governance of Germany after the war had long been disputed, and inmid-1948, Soviet premier Joseph Stalin chose to test Western resoluteness by enforcing a leaguer against West Berlin, which was also under commonU.S., British, and French control but girdled by Soviet- controlled East Germany. This Berlin Crisis brought the United States and the Soviet Union to the point of conflict, although a massive airlift to resupply the megacity for the duration of the leaguer helped to help an outright battle. These events causedU.S. officers to grow decreasingly cautious of the possibility that the countries of Western Europe might deal with their security enterprises by negotiating with the Soviets. To fight this possible turn of events, the Truman Administration considered the possibility of forming a European-American alliance that would commit the United States to bolstering the security of Western Europe.